Advance Tajweed

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Tajweed is the science which studies how to recite Quranic alphabets while reading Quran from their points of articulation with their rights and dues keeping in mind the contextual rules. As the science belongs to the glorious words of Allah Taa’la, we can think of its importance as compared to the other sciences.

Definition of Tajwīd

  • Literally: Tajwīd linguistically means ‘proficiency’ or ‘doing something well’ or to beautify something,
  • Technically: means to recite every letter from its makhraj (place of articulation, exit point) with all its Ṣifāt (characteristics & qualities).

Parts of Tajwīd

Thus there are two parts to Tajwīd:

  1. To recite every letter from its makhraj (place of articulation)
  2. To recite every letter with all its ṣifāt (Qualities)

Subject, Objective & Purpose of the Science of Tajwīd

  • Subject matter is the letters of the (Arabic) alphabet.
  • Objective is to make the reciter proficient in reciting the Qur’an, observing the correct pronunciation of every letter with the rulings and characteristics which apply to each letter, without any exaggeration or deficiency.
  • Purpose is to recite the Qur’an majīd in the manner it was revealed and recited to Rasūlullāh, (ﷺ)for the pleasure of Allah Ta’ālā.

Shar’ah Ruling about Tajwīd:

¯ To recite the Qur`ān with the rules of Tajwīd is most necessary, because applying the Tajwīd rules of Qur’an are an individual obligation (فرض عین) upon every Muslim who has memorized or read part of or all of the Qur’an.

¯The Qur’an was revealed with Tajwīd rules applied to it. If the Qur`ān is not read with Tajwīd then the reciter has erred.

¯To recite with a beautiful voice, if it does not oppose the rules of Tajwīd, is desired and an added matter.

Mistakes in Tajwīd: –

The mistakes that strongly enter the recitation of the words, upset the balance in reading, and breaks Arabic language and grammar rules.

Alteration or mistake in recitation of Qur’an, is called “اَللَّحْنُ” (Al-Laḥn).

The word laḥn literally means ‘incorrect pronunciation’.

In the Science of Tajwīd, laḥn can be described as ‘Failing to adhere to the rules of Tajwīd whilst reciting the Qur’an.

The scholars have divided the types of mistakes one might fall into when reciting the Qur’an into two broad categories, each with several sub-categories.

These broad categories are two:

  1. “اَللَّحْنُ الْجَلِیُّ” (Al-laḥn-Ul-jaliyy) A clear error/mistake

¯Means that the error is clear and obvious like the sun.

The categories of “اَللَّحْنُ الْجَلِیُّ” are as follows:

¶1.Changing (substituting) one letter for another.

for example: substituting a “ض” for a “ظ” or substituting a “ک” for a “ق”.

Such as: reading “اَلضَّالِّينَ” as “اَلظَّالِّينَ”

¶2.Extending (elongating) the sound of a letter in a word, such that it implies that there is an extra letter there.

for example: extending the length of a “Fat’ḥah” sound like an “Alif”, an example of this would be saying the word (لَتَرَوُنَّ) incorrectly as (لَاتَرَوُنَّ).

¶Shortening the sound, such that a long vowel sound is made into a short vowel sound.

for example: making the long vowel sound of a “Fat’ḥah followed by an ‘Alif’” into a short vowel sound of just the “Fat’ḥah”

¯This is, in effect, the opposite of the previous sub-category.

An example would be saying the word (لَا تَعْلَمُوْنَ) incorrectly as (لَتَعْلَمُونَ).

¶Changing one “Ḥarakah” or vowel for another, no matter whether they are at the beginning, middle, or end of the word.

For example, in the following verse, if the “Fat’ḥah” on the letter “Ha” in the word “Allah” were to be mistakenly read as a “Ḍammah”, it would change the meaning of the verse into an opposite (and forbidden) meaning.

{إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ} Surah: Fāṭir (35:28)

Shar’ah Ruling:

¯ Both, a novice in Tajwīd and the expert in it can identify this category of mistake, so must be avoided by all and to avoid them one must know the rules of Tajwīd.

¯This type of changing affects the meaning of the verse(s) being recited, which contains this word. It can alter a word into a completely different word and

may completely change the meaning.

¯ Such mistake in the recitation is so obvious, big, unacceptable, considered a “Ḥarām” (forbidden, prohibited & sin), and the reciter is a sinner.

¯Committing this kind of mistake in the recitation during prayer makes the prayer invalid, and such a prayer has to be repeated with a correct recitation.

¯Were someone to intentionally and purposefully commit these mistakes, they would be regarded as having committed “Kufr”.

Summary: It is not permissible for anyone to deliberately change anything of Quran, such as made where one letter is changed to another, a letter is added or omitted, a mistake is made in the vowel signs, a Sākin is made mutaharrik or a mutaharrik is made Sākin, when he is able to pronounce it correctly.

  1. اَللَّحْنُ الْخَفِیُّ” (Al-laḥn-Ul-khafiyy) a hidden error/ Unobvious mistake.

This refers to errors, which may occur in Ikh’fā, Iqlāb, Id’ghām or Ignoring ghunnah or subordinate madd, reading the ith’hār rule with an Id’ghām, etc.

If such a mistake is made where every letter of a word remains with all its Ḥarakāt and sukūn, but only a few ṣifāt which are connected to the beautification of the letter, are not read.

Shar’ah Ruling:

This type of mistake is lighter than “اَللَّحْنُ الْجَلِیُّ”, but Reading the Qur’an whilst being guilty of Al-laḥn-Ul-khafiyy is makrūh (disliked, undesirable, not commendable). There is fear of chastisement and penalty.

It does not necessarily alter the meaning of the Qur’an. However, it does deprive the Holy Qur’an of its real elegance and beauty.

The Qur’an was revealed with Tajwīd, and in the very least, we should strive to read it with Tajwīd, and many times if we ignore the recitation, we may be making serious errors, and if we refuse to try and correct, we fall in the most serious of all categories. May Allah protect us from this.

Note: If a person finds it difficult to pronounce the letters correctly – such as people in whose language some of the Arabic letters, such as ذ “” “ظ”and “خ”do not exist – they have to try to learn the correct pronunciation, but if they are unable to master it then they are excused, but their example should not be followed, and they should be called upon to strive their hardest to learn and correct their pronunciation. And none of them should lead the prayer, unless he is leading others like him who cannot pronounce well either. Reading and listening, both have the same ruling.

Knowledge of tajweed makes the Qari (reader of Quran) to abstain from the hidden and apparent mistakes while reading Quran. Acquiring this knowledge is a great blessing as this is a good tool to help you read Quran having the sense of correct recitation.

Getting this knowledge is communinal obligation as there must be someone in the society you are living in who has the knowledge of Tajweed so that other can be waived of the responsibility. But reading Quran with Tajweed is compulsory for everyone, for that TarteeleQuran has designed a comprehensive course of Advance Tajweed for the interested students with the best presentation manner.

This course covers pronunciation, characteristics of letters, and proper stopping and starting rules. This course if offered after you have completed the basic course of recitation and starting reading the Holy Quran fluently. This course will make you able to read the Holy Quran having the sense of complete understanding of the rules of Tarteel and make you read in a better way avoiding the mistakes and errors. In-Shaa-Allah

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